Right Pronunciation of importanti names




?stika and n?stika are concepts that have been used to classify the schools of Indian philosophy by modern scholars, as well as some Hindu, Buddhist and Jain texts.[1][2][4] The various definitions for ?stika and n?stika philosophies have been disputed since ancient times, and there is no consensus.[5][6] One standard distinction, as within ancient- and medieval-era Sanskrit philosophical literature, is that ?stika schools accept the Vedas, the ancient texts of India, as fundamentally authoritative, while the n?stika schools do not.[7][8][5] However, a separate way of distinguishing the two terms has evolved in current Indian languages like Telugu, Hindi and Bengali, wherein ?stika and its derivatives usually mean 'theist', and n?stika and its derivatives denote 'atheism'.[9] Still, philosophical tradition maintains the earlier distinction, for example, in identifying the school of S??khya, which is non-theistic within its doctrine.[10] Similarly, though Buddhism is considered to be n?stika, Gautama Buddha is considered an avatar of the god Vishnu in some Hindu denominations.[11] Due to its acceptance of the Vedas, ?stika philosophy, in the original sense, is often equivalent to Hindu philosophy: philosophy that developed alongside the Hindu religion. <

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